Crossroads Asia

Russia, Iran, Others Debate How to Split Caspian Oil Riches

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Crossroads Asia

Russia, Iran, Others Debate How to Split Caspian Oil Riches

The convention signed last year still has not been ratified by Russia or Iran.

Russia, Iran, Others Debate How to Split Caspian Oil Riches

Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev, left, and Turkmenistan’s President Gurbanguly Berdymukhamedov speak, prior to a session of the First Caspian Economic Forum in Turkmenbashi, Turkmenistan, Monday, Aug. 12, 2019.

Credit: Dmitry Astakhov, Sputnik, Government Pool Photo via AP

Five countries bordering the energy-rich Caspian Sea met Monday at an economic forum hosted by Turkmenistan in a bid to agree on how to divide the region’s oil wealth.

Last year, the leaders of Russia, Iran, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, and Kazakhstan signed a convention aimed at ending decades-long uncertainty over exploitation of its resources.

The agreement establishes rules for declaring each country’s territorial waters and fishing zones, but the issue of dividing the seabed, which contains rich oil and gas fields, is subject to further negotiations.

Russia and Iran are yet to ratify last year’s agreement. Russia’s Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev, who attended Monday’s forum in Turkmenistan, said that the ratification is expected “in the near future.”

Iranian Vice President Eshaq Jahangiri made no commitments in his speech at the forum.

Jahangiri argued that non-Caspian nations shouldn’t meddle in the region’s affairs and charged that the United States’ unilateralist policies and its emphasis on sanctions threaten stability of the region.

Turkmenistan’s President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov, who has wielded all-encompassing power since taking office in 2006, styling himself as the former Soviet republic’s Arkadag (protector), told the forum that the Caspian energy riches should provide a powerful incentive for the region’s development.

Berdimuhamedov has been the subject of death rumors since late July. State media overcorrected, airing programs showing the president enjoying his vacation. The bizarre situation  launched Turkmenistan into segments on both the “Daily Show and Last Week Tonight with John Oliver. His appearance at the forum was highly anticipated by regional analysts, the content of the meeting aside.

Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan have yet to agree on how to share the reserves under the seabed. That has impeded progress of the Trans-Caspian natural gas pipeline that would carry Turkmen gas across the sea to Azerbaijan and further on to Western markets.

“It’s a very sensitive issue,” said Bahram Huseynov, a vice president of Azerbaijan’s state oil company SOCAR. “No concrete steps have been made yet and it’s too early to discuss specifics.”

Huseynov added that demilitarization of the sea border between Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan could facilitate the talks on dividing the energy riches.

The West has long encouraged prospective trans-Caspian pipelines as part of its efforts to diversify sources of energy, while Russia and Iran have watched the plans with unease.

More energy exports from the Caspian would compete with energy shipments from Russia, which has sought to expand the sales of its oil and gas to European markets.

Iran has argued for energy shipments from the Caspian to cross its territory, arguing that trans-Caspian routes are too costly and unsafe.

“Iran is against any trans-Caspian pipelines,” said Behruz Namdari of Iran’s National Gas Company. “The construction of a trans-Caspian pipeline could inflict a serious damage to the environment.”

By Alexander Vershinin of the Associated Press. The Diplomat contributed additional reporting.