He spends his time between Indonesia and South Korea, where he is an assistant professor at the Department of International Relations, Universitas Islam Indonesia and a research professor at Korea Institute for ASEAN Studies, Busan University of Foreign Studies.
Beyond these two institutions, Muhammad is also a research affiliate at the Middle East Institute at the National University of Singapore and a research associate at Jakarta-based Institute for Development of Economics and Finance (INDEF). Since August 2022, he has served as an associate at IDEAS, the London School of Economics’ foreign policy think-tank. In addition, he has held visiting professor positions at Bina Nusantara University and Universitas Paramadina.
Muhammad received a B.A. in International Affairs from Qatar University, before completing an M.A. in International Politics and a Ph.D in Politics at the University of Manchester in the U.K.
He is a regular contributor to The Diplomat, Asia Sentinel, The Conversation, and the South China Morning Post.